Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Patriarchy Arena Of Sports - 903 Words

Sports -the ideas of competitive physical movement- have always appeared to be a male dominant field. Not necessarily due to women being incapable of the same activities, yet hence history, media coverage, and ultimately, popularity. Although female athletes like Serena Williams or Yuna Kim have been making their marks within the past few decades, the amount of attention and support they receive is humiliating relative to male athletes. In 2014, female soccer players have threatened to sue the FIFA committee in relation to gender discrimination. Although the lawsuit has now been withdrawn, this case raised a red card concerning gender discrimination in the sports world. This essay will example to prove the patriarchy arena of sports through the lens of media, in conjunction with, how inadequate treatment of female athletes constructs the wider frame of gender discrimination. Biological differences between men and women are apparent and inevitable. Consequently, for centuries the characteristics of gender was justified by biological sex. Ever since early history, males were pronounced with intelligence and physical skills that are able to provide food for the family; conversely, females were recognized as passive recipients of the providing brought to them (Zihlman 1981,75TXTBK). Men’s continuous sperm productions were celebrated unlike women’s menstrual cycle where it is considered less significant since it ends at birth(Martin,1991).Thus so was the interpretation ofShow MoreRelatedThe Comic Strip Above Captures The Essence Of What Judith Lorber And Patricia Yancey Martin Essay1622 Words   |  7 PagesMartin as well as their assumptions on gender roles and how they are used to create gendered bodies culturally. In order to outline how men and women are treated differently in society based on their body types Lorber and Martin go through gendered sports, risk behavior, weight and eating disorders, as well as able-bodiedness. Reflections on how gendered bodies have affected society as well as how other theories relate to this topic will then be discussed. Lorber and Martin use social constructionRead MoreThe Lost Woods By H. William Rice1076 Words   |  5 Pagesthat men performed for a tribe while the women stayed back to care for the young and cook. It truly is a tale as old as time; however, over time, a very long time, women have found their way into this historically male dominated arena. Women have begun partaking in the â€Å"sport† of pursuing animals more frequently than ever before. Despite this, though, females can still find themselves receiving criticism and wayward glances for stepping outside the traditional views of gender roles. In H. William Rice’sRead MoreThe Key Ideas Presented By Poata Smith ( 2004 ) And Richard Pringle Essay1902 Words   |  8 Pagesof a partnership between the treaty parties. Word Count: 525 Richard Pringle (2007) – Sport, Males and Masculinity Up until the late 1980s, the relationship between sport and its role in defining masculinities was seldom understood, but has since become a popular arena for academic debate. Through theorising and extensive behavioural research, academics have sought to understand how male participation in sport contributes to form the contemporary male identity and how it links to the universal perceptionRead MoreEssay about gender moments1373 Words   |  6 Pagesallowed a new perspective to push through. I see attitudes and behavior now as socially constructed and not usually inherent. In R. W. Connel’s book Gender, he defines gender as â€Å"the structure of social relationship that centers on the reproductive arena, and the set of practices that bring reproductive distinctions between bodies into social processes† (pg 10). I have found that gender is an institution, a pattern that has attained a social state. Gender is unique in that it is meshed with many otherRead MoreSociali sation and Its Impact on Beach Volleyball Essay examples2766 Words   |  12 Pagesthinking; and easily impart these ideals into all facets of society, including sport. This stereotypical thinking is a catalyst for gender inequities not only in sport, but society as a whole. Our perception regarding the differences between sportsmen and women stems from hegemonic ideals of masculine dominance that date back to the ancient Olympics. Although equality between genders is gradually percolating the world of sport, agents of socialisation persist in fuelling the conventional thinking thatRead MoreIs Sex And The City Perpetuate Female Stereotypes?2089 Words   |  9 Pagesof domestic role. According to Bell Hooks the cause of women to adhere to strict socially constructed gender roles is because of patriarchy, Hooks defines it as â€Å"Patriarchy is a political system that insists males are inherently dominating. Superior to everything and everyone perceived to be weak, especially fema les. When my older brother and I were born, patriarchy regarded how we would each be determined by our parents. They had been taught patriarchal thinking through religion. At church theyRead MoreTypes Of Online Communities Based On Individual s Interests Essay1796 Words   |  8 PagesSince we entered the Internet age, fandom has seen a change. What was previously considered to be obsessive and abnormal has become an accepted common practice that is continually reinforced by niche marketing and new technologies. Whether fandom of sports, media artifacts, or celebrities, it is easy to lurk through each’s unique language, culture, and community. In one corner we find participants sharing Boromir memes, and we see fantasy football players debated about player stats. While commonly,Read MoreA war against boys?2779 Words   |  12 Pagesevidence that the differences between boys and girls are minimal. When she discusses boys aggression, those same testosterone-propelled, hard-wi red, natural sex differences magically disappear. [S]chool problems have very little to do with misogyny, patriarchy, or sex discrimination, she writes. They have everything to do with childrens propensity to bully and be cruel (my italics). So which is it? She attacks the therapists for failing to recognize the hard-wired differences between the sexesRead MoreFeminist/Marxist Analysis of the Hunger Games Essay examples4753 Words   |  20 Pagesdestroyed, one boy and one girl between the ages of 12 and 18 from each district are selected by annual lottery to participate in the Hunger Games, a televised event in which the participants (or tributes) must fight to the death in a dangerous outdoor arena controlled by the Capitol until only one remains. The story follows 16-year-old Katniss Everdeen, a girl from District 12 who volunteers for the 74th annual Hunger Games in place of her younger sister, Primrose. Also selected from District 12 isRead MoreWomen Movement in India5580 Words   |  23 Pagestook up were political rights and reform of personal laws. Women’s participation in the freedom struggle broadened the base of the women’s movement. In post independence India, large number of women’s a utonomous groups have sprung up challenging patriarchy and taking up a variety of issues such as violence against women, greater share for women in political decision making, etc. both at the activist and academic level. India has a rich and vibrant women’s movement but it has still a long way to go

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Critical Evaluation Of Journal Article - 1647 Words

Critical Evaluation of Journal Article: Peltokorpi, V. (2010) Intercultural communication in foreign subsidiaries: The influence of expatriates’ language and cultural competencies, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26, 176-188. Introduction This paper will critically evaluate the above journal article in question and offer appropriate views and aspects that have been ignored by the author in this study. Initially, a brief summary of the article will be outlined, followed by an analysis and evaluation of the theoretical framework that the article is based upon. Afterward, this critique will examine the methodology used and how it could be improved, and finally, the paper will consider the implications of the article. Overview of Article The article’s main focus is to improve the understanding of intercultural communication between expatriates and local employees in overseas subsidiaries. The article looks at Nordic firms based in Japan and the expatriates’ Japanese language and cultural competencies. The study builds on Du-Babcock and Babcock’s (1996) three communication zones theory by conducting 58 interviews on 46 Nordic male expatriates and 12 local male Japanese managers. The author then analyses his qualitative data and presents his findings whilst relating them to the theory before concluding his article and exhibiting any limitations to his work. Theory and Literature Peltokorpi (2010) draws upon numerous different literatures in his work to support his viewsShow MoreRelatedCritical Evaluation1465 Words   |  6 Pages | Indented, boldface, italicised, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. | |5 | Indented, italicised, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. | Writing the Critical Evaluation †¢ Follow the APA Guidelines – APA Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition) – especially for referencing †¢ Write clearly and concisely for an academic audience. †¢ Avoid the use of direct quotes Read MoreEssay about Critical Thinking: Evaluation1572 Words   |  7 PagesCritical Evaluation of an Academic Source Odetta Rodriguez Capella University Critical Evaluation of an Academic Source This paper is a summary of critical evaluation of the suitability of an article as an academic source. The title of the article is Critical Thinking: An Extended Definition. 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Moreover, an annotated bibliography is a referencing process which includes a list of references along with a summary of the article or book that has been used. Explanation of the article should be conducted in 8-10 sentences ensuring that the summary is brief so that the reader can understand the gist of the source and its relevanceRead MoreA Research Study On The Nursing Leadership And Management Te am1021 Words   |  5 Pagesalternate form such as in a verbal presentation. This author’s research topic of interest is, management of alarm fatigue and appropriate alarm management through effective staff education. Plans for this project over the next two years include, evaluation of the education presented during this study will be conducted on an ongoing basis. The results of the study will be presented to the nursing leadership and management team, for further direction. 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The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twenty Free Essays

string(21) " was not a surprise\." Outside the carriage, the atmosphere was considerably less tense. The three men remained on horseback, never quite in a line. Every now and then one of them would increase his pace or fall behind, and one horse would pass another. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twenty or any similar topic only for you Order Now Perfunctory greetings would be exchanged. Occasionally someone would comment on the weather. Lord Crowland seemed rather interested in the native birds. Thomas didn’t say much, but – Jack glanced over at him – good Lord, was he whistling? â€Å"Are you happy?† Jack asked, his voice a bit short. Thomas looked back in surprise. â€Å"Me?† He frowned, thinking about it. â€Å"I suppose I am. It’s a rather fine day, don’t you think?† â€Å"A fine day,† Jack echoed. â€Å"None of us is trapped in the carriage with that evil old hag,† Crowland announced. â€Å"We should all be happy.† Then he added, â€Å"Pardon,† since the evil old hag was, after all, grandmother to both of his companions. â€Å"Pardons unnecessary on my account,† Thomas said. â€Å"I agree with your assessment completely.† There had to be something significant in this, Jack thought – that their conversation kept returning to how relieved they all were not to be in the dowager’s presence. It was damned strange, to tell the truth, and yet, it did make one think†¦ â€Å"Will I have to live with her?† he blurted out. Thomas looked over and grinned. â€Å"The Outer Hebrides, my man, the Outer Hebrides.† â€Å"Why didn’t you do it?† Jack demanded. â€Å"Oh, believe me, I will, on the off chance I still possess any power over her tomorrow. And if I don’t†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Thomas shrugged. â€Å"I’ll need some sort of employment, won’t I? I always wished to travel. Perhaps I shall be your scout. I’ll find the oldest, coldest place on the island. I shall have a rollicking good time.† â€Å"For God’s sake,† Jack swore. â€Å"Stop talking like that.† He did not want this to be preordained. He did not want it to be understood. Thomas ought to be fighting for his place in the world, not blithely handing it over. Because he himself did not want it. He wanted Grace, and he wanted his freedom, and more than anything, right at that very moment, he wanted to be somewhere else. Anywhere else. Thomas gave him a curious look but said nothing more. And neither did Jack. Not when they reached Pollamore, or Cavan town, or even as they rode into Butlersbridge. Night had long since fallen, but Jack knew every storefront, every last signpost and tree. There was the Derragarra Inn, where he’d got himself drunk on his seventeenth birthday. There was the butcher, and the blacksmith, and ah, yes, there was the oatmeal mill, behind which he’d stolen his first kiss. Which meant that in five – no, make that four – more minutes, he would be home. Home. It was a word he had not uttered in years. It had had no meaning. He’d lived in inns and public houses and sometimes under the stars. He’d had his ragtag group of friends, but they drifted in and out of togetherness. They thieved together more by convenience than anything else. All they’d had in common was a shared past in the military, and a willingness to give a portion of their bounty to those who had returned from the war less fortunate than they. Over the years, Jack had given money to men without legs, women without husbands, children without parents. No one ever questioned where he’d got the money. He supposed his bearing and accent were those of a gentleman, and that was enough. People saw what they wanted to see, and when a former officer (who never quite got around to sharing his name) came bearing gifts†¦ No one ever wanted to question it. And through all this, he’d told no one. Who had there been to tell? Grace. Now there was Grace. He smiled. She would approve. Perhaps not of the means, but certainly of the end. The truth was, he’d never taken anything from anyone who hadn’t looked as if they could afford it. And he’d always been careful to more thoroughly rob the most annoying of his victims. Such scruples would not have kept him from the gallows, but it had always made him feel a bit better about his chosen profession. He heard a horse draw up next to his, and when he turned, there was Thomas, now keeping pace beside him. â€Å"Is this the road?† he asked quietly. Jack nodded. â€Å"Just around the bend.† â€Å"They are not expecting you, are they?† â€Å"No.† Thomas had far too much tact to question him further, and indeed, he allowed his mount to fall back by half a length, granting Jack his privacy. And then there it was. Cloverhill. Just as he’d remembered it, except maybe the vines had taken over a bit more of the brick facade. The rooms were lit, and the windows shone with warmth. And even though the only sounds were those made by the traveling party, Jack could swear he could hear laughter and merriment seeping out through the walls. Dear God, he’d thought he’d missed it, but this†¦ This was something more. This was an ache, a true, pounding pain in his chest; an empty hole; a sob, forever caught in his throat. This was home. Jack wanted to stop, to take a moment to gaze at the graceful old house, but he heard the carriage drawing closer and knew that he could not keep everyone at bay while he indulged his own nostalgia. The last thing he wanted was for the dowager to barge in ahead of him (which he was quite certain she would do), so he rode up to the entrance, dismounted, and walked up the steps on his own. He closed his eyes and drew a long breath, and then, since he wasn’t likely to amass any more courage in the next few minutes, he lifted the brass knocker and brought it down. There was no immediate reply. This was not a surprise. You read "The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twenty" in category "Essay examples" It was late. They were unexpected. The butler might have retired for the night. There were so many reasons they should have got rooms in the village and made their way to Cloverhill in the morning. He didn’t want – The door opened. Jack held his hands tightly behind his back. He’d tried leaving them at his sides, but they started to shake. He saw the light of the candle first, and then the man behind it, wrinkled and stooped. â€Å"Master Jack?† Jack swallowed. â€Å"Wimpole,† he said. Good heavens, the old butler must be nearing eighty, but of course his aunt would have kept him on, for as long as he wished to work, which, knowing Wimpole, would be until the day he died. â€Å"We were not expecting you,† Wimpole said. Jack tried for a smile. â€Å"Well, you know how I like a surprise.† â€Å"Come in! Come in! Oh, Master Jack, Mrs. Audley will be so pleased to see you. As will – † Wimpole stopped, peering out the door, his wizened old eyes creasing into a squint. â€Å"I am afraid that I brought a few guests,† Jack explained. The dowager had already been helped down from the carriage, and Grace and Amelia were right behind her. Thomas had grabbed onto his grandmother’s arm – hard, from the looks of it – to give Jack a few moments alone, but the dowager was already showing signs of impending outrage. â€Å"Wimpole?† came a feminine voice. â€Å"Who is here at this hour?† Jack stood stiffly, hardly able to breathe. It was his aunt Mary. She sounded exactly the same. It was as if he’d never left†¦ Except it wasn’t. If he’d never left, his heart wouldn’t be pounding, his mouth wouldn’t be dry. And most of all, he wouldn’t feel so bloody terrified. Scared spitless at seeing the one person who had loved him his entire life, with her whole heart and without condition. â€Å"Wimpole? I – † She’d rounded the corner and was staring at him like a ghost. â€Å"Jack?† â€Å"In the flesh.† He tried for a jovial tone but couldn’t quite manage it, and deep inside, down where he kept his blackest moments, he wanted to cry. Right there, in front of everyone, it was twisting and writhing inside of him, bursting to get out. â€Å"Jack!† she cried out, and she hurled herself forward, throwing her arms around him. â€Å"Oh, Jack. Jack, my dear sweet boy. We’ve missed you so.† She was covering his face with kisses, like a mother would her son. Like she should have been able to do for Arthur. â€Å"It is good to see you, Aunt Mary,† he said. He pulled her tight then and buried his face in the crook of her neck, because she was his mother, in every way that mattered. And he’d missed her. By God, he’d missed her, and in that moment it did not matter that he’d hurt her in the worst way imaginable. He just wanted to be held. â€Å"Oh, Jack,† she said, smiling through her tears, â€Å"I ought to horsewhip you for staying away so long. Why would you do such a thing? Don’t you know how worried we were? How – â€Å" â€Å"Ahem.† Mary stopped and turned, still holding Jack’s face in her hands. The dowager had made her way to the front entrance and was standing behind him on the stone steps. â€Å"You must be the aunt,† she said. Mary just stared at her. â€Å"Yes,† she finally replied. â€Å"And you are†¦?† â€Å"Aunt Mary,† Jack said hastily, before the dowager could speak again, â€Å"I am afraid I must introduce you to the dowager Duchess of Wyndham.† Mary let go of him and curtsied, stepping aside as the dowager swept past her. â€Å"The Duchess of Wyndham?† she echoed, looking at Jack with palpable shock. â€Å"Good heavens, Jack, couldn’t you have sent notice?† Jack smiled tightly. â€Å"It is better this way, I assure you.† The rest of the traveling party came forward at that moment, and Jack completed the introductions, trying not to notice his aunt going from paler to palest after he identified the Duke of Wyndham and the Earl of Crowland. â€Å"Jack,† she whispered frantically, â€Å"I haven’t the rooms. We have nothing grand enough – â€Å" â€Å"Please, Mrs. Audley,† Thomas said with a deferential bow, â€Å"do not put yourself out on my accord. It was unforgivable for us to arrive without notice. I would not expect you to go to any great lengths. Although† – he glanced over at the dowager, who was standing in the hall with a sour look on her face – â€Å"perhaps your finest room for my grandmother. It will be easier for everyone.† â€Å"Of course,† Mary said quickly. â€Å"Please, please, it’s chilly. You must all come inside. Jack, I do need to tell you – â€Å" â€Å"Where is your church?† the dowager demanded. â€Å"Our church?† Mary asked, looking to Jack in confusion. â€Å"At this hour?† â€Å"I do not intend to worship,† the dowager snapped. â€Å"I wish to inspect the records.† â€Å"Does Vicar Beveridge still preside?† Jack asked, trying to cut the dowager off. â€Å"Yes, but he will surely be abed. It’s half nine, I should think, and he is an early riser. Perhaps in the morning. I – â€Å" â€Å"This is a matter of dynastic importance,† the dowager cut in. â€Å"I don’t care if it’s after midnight. We – â€Å" â€Å"I care,† Jack cut in, silencing her with an icy expression. â€Å"You are not going to pull the vicar out of bed. You have waited this long. You can bloody well wait until morning.† â€Å"Jack!† Mary gasped. She turned to the dowager. â€Å"I did not raise him to speak this way.† â€Å"No, you didn’t,† Jack said, which was the closest he was going to come to an apology while the dowager was staring him down. â€Å"You were his mother’s sister, weren’t you?† the dowager said. Mary looked a bit baffled at the sudden change of topic. â€Å"I am.† â€Å"Were you present at her wedding?† â€Å"I was not.† Jack turned to her in surprise. â€Å"You weren’t?† â€Å"No. I could not attend. I was in confinement.† She gave Jack a rueful look. â€Å"I never told you. It was a stillbirth.† Her face softened. â€Å"Just one of the reasons I was so happy to have you.† â€Å"We shall make for the church in the morning,† the dowager announced, uninterested in Mary’s obstetrical history. â€Å"First thing. We shall find the papers and be done with it.† â€Å"The papers?† Mary echoed. â€Å"Proof of the marriage,† the dowager bit off. She looked upon Mary with icy condescension, then dismissed her with a flick of her head, adding, â€Å"Are you daft?† It was a good thing Thomas pulled her back, because Jack would have gone for her throat. â€Å"Louise was not married in the Butlersbridge church,† Mary said. â€Å"She was married at Maguiresbridge. In County Fermanagh, where we grew up.† â€Å"How far is that?† the dowager demanded, trying to yank her arm free of Thomas’s grasp. â€Å"Twenty miles, your grace.† The dowager muttered something quite unpleasant. Jack could not make out the exact words, but Mary blanched. She turned to him with an expression nearing alarm. â€Å"Jack? What is this all about? Why do you need proof of your mother’s marriage?† He looked at Grace, who was standing a bit behind his aunt. She offered him a tiny nod of encouragement, and he cleared his throat and said, â€Å"My father was her son.† Mary looked over at the dowager in shock. â€Å"Your father†¦John Cavendish, you mean†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Thomas stepped forward. â€Å"May I intercede?† Jack felt exhausted. â€Å"Please do.† â€Å"Mrs. Audley,† Thomas said, with more dignity and collection than Jack could ever have imagined, â€Å"if there is proof of your sister’s marriage, then your nephew is the true Duke of Wyndham.† â€Å"The true Duke of – † Mary covered her mouth in shock. â€Å"No. It’s not possible. I remember him. Mr. Cavendish. He was – † She waved her arms in the air as if trying to describe him with gestures. Finally, after several attempts at a more verbal explanation, she said, â€Å"He would not have kept such a thing from us.† â€Å"He was not the heir at the time,† Thomas told her, â€Å"and had no reason to believe he would become so.† â€Å"Oh, my heavens. But if Jack is the duke, then you – â€Å" â€Å"Are not,† he finished wryly. â€Å"I am sure you can imagine our eagerness to have this settled.† Mary stared at him in shock. And then at Jack. And then looked as if she very much wanted to sit down. â€Å"I am standing in the hall,† the dowager announced haughtily. â€Å"Don’t be rude,† Thomas chided. â€Å"She should have seen to – â€Å" Thomas shifted his grip on her arm and yanked her forward, brushing right past Jack and his aunt. â€Å"Mrs. Audley,† he said, â€Å"we are most grateful for your hospitality. All of us.† Mary nodded gratefully and turned to the butler. â€Å"Wimpole, would you – â€Å" â€Å"Of course, ma’am,† he said, and Jack had to smile as he moved away. No doubt he was rousing the housekeeper to have her prepare the necessary bedrooms. Wimpole had always known what Aunt Mary needed before she’d had to utter the words. â€Å"We shall have rooms readied in no time,† Mary said, turning to Grace and Amelia, who were standing off to the side. â€Å"Would the two of you mind sharing? I don’t have – â€Å" â€Å"It is no trouble at all,† Grace said warmly. â€Å"We enjoy each other’s company.† â€Å"Oh, thank you,† Mary said, sounding relieved. â€Å"Jack, you shall have to take your old bed in the nursery, and – oh, this is silly, I should not be wasting your time here in the hall. Let us retire to the drawing room, where you may warm yourselves by the fire until your rooms are ready.† She ushered everyone in, but when Jack made to go, she placed her hand on his arm, gently holding him back. â€Å"We missed you,† she said. He swallowed, but the lump in his throat would not dislodge. â€Å"I missed you, too,† he said. He tried to smile. â€Å"Who is home? Edward must have – â€Å" â€Å"Married,† she finished for him. â€Å"Yes. As soon as we were out of mourning for Arthur. And Margaret soon after. They both live close by, Edward just down the lane, Margaret in Belturbet.† â€Å"And Uncle William?† Jack had last seen him at Arthur’s funeral. He’d looked older. Older, and tired. And stiff with grief. â€Å"He is well?† Mary was silent, and then an unbearable sorrow filled her eyes. Her lips parted but she did not speak. She did not need to. Jack stared at her in shock. â€Å"No,† he whispered, because it could not be true. He was supposed to have had a chance to say he was sorry. He’d come all the way to Ireland. He wanted to say he was sorry. â€Å"He died, Jack.† Mary blinked several times, her eyes glistening. â€Å"It was two years ago. I didn’t know how to find you. You never gave us an address.† Jack turned, taking a few steps toward the rear of the house. If he stayed where he was, someone could see him. Everyone was in the drawing room. If they looked through the doorway, they would see him, struck, ready to cry, maybe ready to scream. â€Å"Jack?† It was Mary, and he could hear her steps moving cautiously toward him. He looked up at the ceiling, taking a shaky, open-mouthed breath. It didn’t help, but it was all he could manage. Mary laid her hand on his arm. â€Å"He told me to tell you he loved you.† â€Å"Don’t say that.† It was the one thing he couldn’t hear. Not just now. â€Å"He did. He told me he knew you would come home. And that he loved you, and you were his son. In his heart, you were his son.† He covered his face with his hands and found himself pressing tight, tighter, as if he could squeeze this all away. Why was he surprised? There was no reason he should be. William was not a young man; he’d been nearly forty when he married Mary. Did he think that life would have stood still in his absence? That no one would have changed, or grown†¦or died? â€Å"I should have come back,† he said. â€Å"I should have – Oh, God, I’m such an idiot.† Mary touched his hand, pulled it gently down and held it. And then she pulled him out of the hall, into the nearest room. His uncle’s study. Jack walked over to the desk. It was a hulking, behemoth of a thing, the wood dark and scuffed and smelling like the paper and ink that always lain atop it. But it had never been imposing. Funny, he’d always liked coming in here. It seemed odd, really. He’d been an out of doors sort of boy, always running and racing, and covered in mud. Even now, he hated a room with fewer than two windows. But he had always liked it here. He turned to look at his aunt. She was standing in the middle of the room. She’d closed the door most of the way and set her candle down on a shelf. She turned and looked back at him and said, very softly, â€Å"He knew you loved him.† He shook his head. â€Å"I did not deserve him. Or you.† â€Å"Stop this talk. I won’t hear it.† â€Å"Aunt Mary, you know†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He put his fisted hand to his mouth, biting down on his knuckle. The words were there, but they burned in his chest, and it was so damned hard to speak them. â€Å"You know that Arthur would not have gone to France if not for me.† She stared at him in bewilderment, then gasped and said, â€Å"Good heavens, Jack, you do not blame yourself for his death?† â€Å"Of course I do. He went for me. He would never have – â€Å" â€Å"He wanted to join the army. He knew it was that or the clergy, and heaven knows he did not want that. He’d always planned – â€Å" â€Å"No,† Jack cut in, with all the force and anger in his heart. â€Å"He hadn’t. Maybe he told you he had, but – â€Å" â€Å"You cannot take responsibility for his death. I will not let you.† â€Å"Aunt Mary – â€Å" â€Å"Stop! Stop it!† The heels of her hands were pressed against her temples, her fingers wrapping up and over her skull. More than anything, she looked as if she were trying to shut him out, to put a stop to whatever it was he was trying to tell her. But it had to be said. It was the only way she would understand. And it would be the first time he’d uttered the words aloud. â€Å"I cannot read.† Three words. That’s all it was. Three words. And a lifetime of secrets. Her brow wrinkled, and Jack could not tell – did she not believe him? Or was it simply that she thought she’d misheard? People saw what they expected to see. He’d acted like an educated man, and so that was how she’d seen him. â€Å"I can’t read, Aunt Mary. I’ve never been able to. Arthur was the only one who ever realized.† She shook her head. â€Å"I don’t understand. You were in school. You were graduated – â€Å" â€Å"By the skin of my teeth,† Jack cut in, â€Å"and only then, with Arthur’s help. Why do you think I had to leave university?† â€Å"Jack†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She looked almost embarrassed. â€Å"We were told you misbehaved. You drank too much, and there was that woman, and – and – that awful prank with the pig, and – Why are you shaking your head?† â€Å"I didn’t want to embarrass you.† â€Å"You think that wasn’t embarrassing?† â€Å"I could not do the work without Arthur’s help,† he explained. â€Å"And he was two years behind me.† â€Å"But we were told – â€Å" â€Å"I’d rather have been dismissed for bad behavior than stupidity,† he said softly. â€Å"You did it all on purpose?† He dipped his chin. â€Å"Oh, my God.† She sank into a chair. â€Å"Why didn’t you say something? We could have hired a tutor.† â€Å"It wouldn’t have helped.† And then, when she looked up at him in confusion he said, almost helplessly, â€Å"The letters dance. They flip about. I can never tell the difference between a d and a b, unless they are uppercase, and even then I – â€Å" â€Å"You’re not stupid,† she cut in, and her voice was sharp. He stared at her. â€Å"You are not stupid. If there is a problem it is with your eyes, not your mind. I know you.† She stood, her movements shaky but determined, and then she touched his cheek with her hand. â€Å"I was there the moment you were born. I was the first to hold you. I have been with you for every scrape, every tumble. I have watched your eyes light, Jack. I have watched you think. â€Å"How clever you must have been,† she said softly, â€Å"to have fooled us all.† â€Å"Arthur helped me all through school,† he said as evenly as he was able. â€Å"I never asked him to. He said he liked – † He swallowed then, because the memory was rising in his throat like a cannonball. â€Å"He said he liked to read aloud.† â€Å"I think he did like that.† A tear began to roll down her cheek. â€Å"He idolized you, Jack.† Jack fought the sobs that were choking his throat. â€Å"I was supposed to protect him.† â€Å"Soldiers die, Jack. Arthur was not the only one. He was merely†¦Ã¢â‚¬  She closed her eyes and turned away, but not so fast that Jack didn’t see the flash of pain on her face. â€Å"He was merely the only one who mattered to me,† she whispered. She looked up, straight into his eyes. â€Å"Please, Jack, I don’t want to lose two sons.† She held out her arms, and before Jack knew it, he was there, in her embrace. Sobbing. He had not cried for Arthur. Not once. He’d been so full of anger – at the French, at himself – that he had not left room for grief. But now here it was, rushing in. All the sadness, all the times he’d witnessed something amusing and Arthur had not been there to share it with. All the milestones he had celebrated alone. All the milestones Arthur would never celebrate. He cried for all of that. And he cried for himself, for his lost years. He’d been running. Running from himself. And he was tired of it. He wanted to stop. To stay in one place. With Grace. He would not lose her. He did not care what he had to do to ensure their future, but ensure it he would. If Grace said that she could not marry the Duke of Wyndham, then he would not be the Duke of Wyndham. Surely there was some measure of his destiny that was still under his control. â€Å"I need to see to the guests,† Mary whispered, pulling gently away. Jack nodded, wiping the last of his tears from his eyes. â€Å"The dowager†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Good lord, what was there to say about the dowager, except: â€Å"I’m so sorry.† â€Å"She shall have my bedchamber,† Mary said. Normally Jack would have forbidden her to give up her room, but he was tired, and he suspected she was tired, and tonight seemed like the perfect time to put ease before pride. And so he nodded. â€Å"That is very kind of you.† â€Å"I suspect it’s something closer to self-preservation.† He smiled at that. â€Å"Aunt Mary?† She’d reached the door, but she stopped with her hand on the knob, turning back around to face him. â€Å"Yes?† â€Å"Miss Eversleigh,† he said. Something lit in his aunt’s eyes. Something romantic. â€Å"Yes?† â€Å"I love her.† Mary’s entire being seemed to warm and glow. â€Å"I am so happy to hear it.† â€Å"She loves me, too.† â€Å"Even better.† â€Å"Yes,† he murmured, â€Å"it is.† She motioned toward the hall. â€Å"Will you return with me?† Jack knew he should, but the evening’s revelations had left him exhausted. And he did not want anyone to see him thus, his eyes still red and raw. â€Å"Would you mind if I remained here?† he asked. â€Å"Of course not.† She smiled wistfully and left the room. Jack turned back toward his uncle’s desk, running his fingers slowly along the smooth surface. It was peaceful here, and the Lord knew, he needed a spot of peace. It was going to be a long night. He would not sleep. There was no sense in trying. But he did not want to do anything. He did not want to go anywhere, and most of all, he did not want to think. For this moment†¦for this night†¦he just wanted to be. Grace liked the Audleys’ drawing room, she decided. It was quite elegant, decorated in soft tones of burgundy and cream, with two seating areas, a writing desk, and several cozy reading chairs in the corners. Signs of family life were everywhere – from the stack of letters on the desk to the embroidery Mrs. Audley must have abandoned on the sofa when she’d heard Jack at the door. On the mantel sat six miniatures in a row. Grace walked over, pretending to warm her hands by the fire. It was their family, she instantly realized, probably painted fifteen years ago. The first was surely Jack’s uncle, and the next Grace recognized as Mrs. Audley. After that was†¦Good heavens, was that Jack? It had to be. How could someone change so little? He looked younger, yes, but everything else was the same – the expression, the sly smile. It nearly took her breath away. The other three miniatures were the Audley children, or so Grace assumed. Two boys and one girl. She dipped her head and said a little prayer when she reached the younger of the boys. Arthur. Jack had loved him. Was that what he was talking about with his aunt? Grace had been the last to enter the drawing room; she’d seen Mrs. Audley pull him gently through another doorway. After a few minutes the butler arrived, announcing that their rooms had been prepared, but Grace loitered near the fireplace. She was not ready to leave this room. She was not sure why. â€Å"Miss Eversleigh.† She looked up. It was Jack’s aunt. â€Å"You walk softly, Mrs. Audley,† she said. â€Å"I did not hear you approach.† â€Å"That one is Jack,† Mrs. Audley said, reaching out and removing his miniature from the mantel. â€Å"I recognized him,† Grace murmured. â€Å"Yes, he is much the same. This one is my son Edward. He lives just down the lane. And this is Margaret. She has two daughters of her own now.† Grace looked at Arthur. They both did. â€Å"I am sorry for your loss,† Grace finally said. Mrs. Audley swallowed, but she did not seem to be near tears. â€Å"Thank you.† She turned then, and took Grace’s hand in hers. â€Å"Jack is in his uncle’s study. At the far end of the hall, on the right. Go to him.† Grace’s lips parted. â€Å"Go,† Mrs. Audley said, even more softly than before. Grace felt herself nod, and before she’d had time to consider her actions, she was already in the hall, hurrying down toward the end. To the door on the right. â€Å"Jack?† she said softly, pushing the door open a few inches. He was sitting in a chair, facing the window, but he turned quickly and stood at the sound of her voice. She let herself in and closed the door gently behind her. â€Å"Your aunt said – â€Å" He was right there. Right there in front of her. And then her back was against the door, and he was kissing her, hard, fast, and – dear God – thoroughly. And then he stepped away. She couldn’t breathe, she could barely stand, and she knew she could not have put together a sentence if her life had depended on it. Never in her life had she wanted anything as much as she wanted this man. â€Å"Go to bed, Grace.† â€Å"What?† â€Å"I cannot resist you,† he said, his voice soft, haggard, and everything in between. She reached toward him. She could not help it. â€Å"Not in this house,† he whispered. But his eyes burned for her. â€Å"Go,† he said hoarsely. â€Å"Please.† She did. She ran up the stairs, found her room, and crawled between her sheets. But she shivered all night. She shivered and she burned. How to cite The Lost Duke of Wyndham Chapter Twenty, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

My Name Is Khan Reaction Paper free essay sample

1. There are several themes portrayed in the film provide at least three defined each answer. There are three themes in the film that captured my attention. First, is the struggle of Muslim in America after the September 11th attack, I saw how Other Muslims suffered in America even those Muslims are innocent and not belong to the group of terrorist that attract the world trade center.I saw how Americans backlash against Muslim for they think that all Muslim are the same they will kill for the sake of their lord. Second, is the religion this film is not only for Islam-Hindu this is for all religions in the world it just opens our mind that even though we have different beliefs we must respect each other and don’t judge each other’s belief like what mother of Khan said â€Å"there are only two kind of people in this world, good people who good deeds and bad people who do bad†. We will write a custom essay sample on My Name Is Khan Reaction Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Lastly is the theme that all about family, family of Rizvan with his mother and brother and his own family together with Mandira it shows that despite of disability of Khan there’s always his family who loves him and take care of him, his love for Mandira is extraordinary he shows it not by doing things that can make Mandira happy but he shows it verbally. Khan is also despised by his brother but in the end his brother shows his love for Khan. 2. How do you characterize Mandira?Do you agree with her reactions, why or why not? Mandira is a good person, a good mother to her son. She doesn’t care for what other people think when she marries Khan even Khan has Asperger’s syndrome and they have their religion. In the story where Mandira get mad to Khan, I don’t agree with her reaction when she blames their struggles on the last name â€Å"khan† because everything that happens to her family is not the fault of Khan and Khan doesn’t know what is happening.For me, it is not right that Mandira blame khan for what had happens to them for it is her decision to marry Khan so whatever happens to them they should not blame each other but at the other side I can’t blame Mandira she lost her son and it is normal for a mother to be hurt and at that time there is no justice for her lost so he get mad for other people who she thinks that the reason why it happens to her son. For me, Mandira must accept everything that happens to them because for me if it’s meant to be it will be. 3. Had you been Sam, would you also react the same way? (Pertaining to the scene at the football field) Why?If I had been Sam, yes I will react as the same way what he did at the football field, when he wants to talk with his best friend because it is his best friend and he wants to know why Reese is moving away from him even he doesn’t do anything that can hurt Reese. When the bad students came and interrupt Reese and Sam’s conversation it starts a fire against Sam and the Bad student and of course he want to fight for his self and does bad students insulted him and his religion so for me when I’m on Sam’s situation I would react the same way as what Sam did because I need to fight for myself and my Beliefs are being rude. So, I can’t blame Sam when he insulted those bad guys because he is in fire and all he thinks is he is being slur by does guy, if I’m Sam I also think that I can throw bad words to those guys who insulted me because I need to protect myself and fight for myself. 4. What is your general reaction towards to the film? This film is not only intriguing but incredibly important and timely. It tackles many sensitive topics that include the backlash against Muslims after 9/11, the discrimination that many felt and continue to feel, the problematic use of the term â€Å"terrorist†.The film is not all about the terrorism or war it is about it’s about a relationship between two people, between an individual and the State, and between an individual and the country. It is the best movie that can open our mind to everything that is happening to our world and the different religions, it teach us that whatever your religion is, it is not a barrier for you to help other pe ople. Learn to respect other that even a disable person can help you. This movie is for all the religions in world and also a story of family.Even a disable person can help other so we can also do the same thing that Khan did prove our self to other that we are who we are. There are no good Hindus, bad Hindus, good Christians, bad Christians. Either you are a good person or a bad person. Religion is not the criterion, humanity is. It’s not about a disabled man’s fight against disability. It’s a disabled man’s fight against the disability that exists in the world—terrorism, hatred, fighting  . .. My Name is Khan  is also about Islam and the way the world looks at Islam.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The KISS Guide To Writing Keyword Rich Articles

The KISS Guide To Writing Keyword Rich Articles The KISS Guide To Writing Keyword Rich Articles The KISS Guide To Writing Keyword Rich Articles By Sharon Freelance writers are often asked to write keyword rich web content articles. If you dont know where to begin, heres the keep it simple guide to get you started. Finding Keywords In most cases, clients supply the keywords you need for an article. If they dont, then your first step is to research some appropriate keywords for their topic. There are several tools you can use to do this. Some of my favorites are: the SEOBook Keyword Tool Google Adwords search tool These free tools allow you to search for a term and see related keywords. For each term, the sites indicate the search volume. This tells you which keywords are popular and gives you a list of phrases and alternative phrases to use when writing articles. Keyword Density Once you have the keywords, then its time to start writing. Sometimes clients ask for a specific keyword density, such as 3%. Although this is not the best way to write keyword articles, if thats what the client asks for, thats what you have to provide. Two tools which work well for checking keyword density are Textalyser and Live Keyword Analysis. in both cases, you paste your text into a box, hit a button and find out your keyword density. (Alternatively, you can work out how many times you need to mention the keyword phrase to achieve your target density and find and count them manually in your word processing program.) Seeding The Keywords Its much rarer now for writing clients to request a high keyword density. Using keywords 10-15 times in a short article can make it virtually unreadable, so most go for using keywords around five times. Whichever method you use, key positions for keyword placement are at the start (first words, first sentence or first paragraph) and end (last words, last sentence or last paragraph) of the article. Then the other keywords are sprinkled around in the middle. Breaking It Up One issue that writers sometimes face is having unwieldy keywords that dont fit well within a sentence. Some clients are sticklers for using keywords as written, which can result in strange sentence constructions that lack the appropriate punctuation. (Example: When buying mortgages UK consumers need to be aware of interest rates.) However, others realise that search engines take little account of punctuation and stop words (short words such as the, a and so on) and that its ok to use these to make a phrase more reader friendly. With this kind of client, its easy to produce engaging and informative articles that still meet the clients brief. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:5 Uses of InfinitivesOne Fell SwoopJanuary 1 Doesn't Need an "st"

Monday, March 2, 2020

Dream Interpretation According to Psychology

Dream Interpretation According to Psychology The best approach to dream interpretation is a question that psychologists have a hard time agreeing on. Many, such as Sigmund Freud, adhere to the idea that dreams point to unconscious desires, while others, such as Calvin S. Hall, advocate for a cognitive approach in which dreams reflect different parts of our waking lives. Key Takeaways: Dream Interpretation Many approaches to dream interpretation have been proposed in psychology, including that dreams should be examined for symbols and that they reflect our perspectives on our lives.Psychologists differ on whether dreams serve a real purpose and what that purpose might be.Dream researcher G. William Domhoff observed that interpreting an individuals dreams provides â€Å"a very good psychological portrait of that individual.†Ã‚   What Are Dreams? Dreams are a series of images, emotions, thoughts, and sensations that occur when we sleep. They are involuntary and typically occur during the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of slumber. Although dreams can occur at other points in the sleep cycle, they’re most vivid and memorable during REM.  Not everyone remembers their dreams, but researchers believe that everyone has three to six 6 dreams in a night and that each dream lasts between 5 and 20 minutes. Even people who do remember their dreams are thought to forget about 95% of them when they wake up. Psychologists offer many reasons for dreaming. Some suggest its simply to clear away useless memories from the previous day and enter important ones into long-term storage. For example, if you have a dream about President Trump swimming with manatees it may be that your brain is in the process of removing a piece of news about the presidential administration and endangered species. On the other hand, many psychologists, especially those involved in therapy, have seen the value of dream analysis. Thus, while dreams may help sort the information in our brains, they may also help us consider information that we ignore when we’re awake. So, perhaps during the day, we focused on tasks that had nothing to do with the news about the presidential administration and endangered species, but then we worked through how we felt about the information during our dreams that night. Others have proposed that dreams are the brain’s way of preparing for possible future challenges. For example, dreams about our teeth falling out could reflect our anxiety about our body giving out on us. Dreams may also serve a problem-solving function as we continue to grapple with challenges, like a difficult work project that we tackled during the day, as we sleep. Psychologists like G. William Domhoff claimed that there is no psychological function for our dreams. Yet, Domhoff also said dreams have meaning because their content is unique to the individual and therefore analyzing an individual’s dreams can provide â€Å"a very good psychological portrait of that individual.†Ã‚   Sigmund Freud’s â€Å"The Interpretation of Dreams† Freud’s perspective on dream interpretation, which he laid out in his seminal book The Interpretation of Dreams, continues to be popular today. Freud believed dreaming was a form of  wish fulfillment that reflected a dreamer’s unconscious desires. He also claimed that the manifest content of a dream, or the literal story or events of the dream, masks the latent content of the dream, or the symbolic or hidden meaning of the dream. For example, if an individual dreams they are flying, it may actually mean that the individual is yearning for freedom from a situation they see as oppressive. Freud called the process of transforming latent content into manifest content â€Å"dreamwork† and suggested it includes several processes: Condensation involves combining multiple ideas or images into one. For instance, a dream about an authority figure could represent one’s parents and one’s boss at the same time.Displacement involves changing the thing we’re really concerned about into something else. For example, if an individual is considering whether to go back to school or to accept a new job, they might dream about two large animals fighting, representing the dilemma they feel about the decision.Symbolization involves one object standing in for another. For example, the use of a gun or sword can be interpreted as having a sexual meaning.Secondary revision involves reorganizing the elements of a dream into a comprehensive whole. This takes place at the end of a dream and results in the dream’s manifest content. Freud also made some suggestions about universal symbols that could be found in dreams. According to Freud, only a few things are symbolized in dreams, including the human body, parents, children, siblings, birth, and death. Freud suggested that the individual was often symbolized by a house, while parents appear as royal figures or other highly respected individuals. Meanwhile, water often references birth, and going on a journey represents death. However, Freud did not put a great deal of weight on universal symbols. He said that symbolism in dreams is often personal and therefore dream interpretation requires an understanding of the dreamer’s individual circumstances. Carl Jung’s Approach to Dream Interpretation Jung was originally a follower of Freud. Even though he eventually broke with him and developed rival theories, Jung’s approach to dream interpretation has some things in common with Freud’s. Like Freud, Jung believed dreams contained latent meaning disguised by manifest content. However, Jung also believed dreams symbolized a person’s desire for balance in their personality, not wish fulfillment. Jung put more weight on a dream’s manifest content than Freud, as he felt that important symbols could be found there. In addition, Jung posited that dreams were expressions of the collective unconscious and could help one anticipate future issues in their life. As an example of his approach to dream interpretation, Jung related a young man’s dream. In the dream the young mans father was driving away erratically. He eventually hit a  wall and wrecked his car because he was drunk. The young man was surprised by the dream as his relationship with his father was positive and his father would never drive drunk in real life. Jung interpreted the dream to mean that the young man felt he was living in his father’s shadow. Thus, the purpose of the dream was to knock the father down while elevating the young man. Jung often used archetypes and universal myths to interpret dreams. As a result, Jungian therapy approaches dream analysis in three stages. First the personal context of the dreamer is considered. Second the dreamer’s cultural context is considered, including their age and environment. Finally, any archetypal content is evaluated in order to discover links between the dream and humanity as a whole. Calvin S. Hall’s Approach to Dream Interpretation Unlike Freud and Jung, Hall didn’t believe that dreams included latent content. Instead, he proposed a cognitive theory that claimed that dreams are simply thoughts that appear in the mind during sleep. As a result, dreams represent our personal lives through the following cognitive structures: Conceptions of the self or how we see ourselves. For example, an individual might dream that they become a powerful businessperson but then lose it all, suggesting the individual sees themselves as strong but is concerned they can’t maintain that strength.Conceptions of others or how the individual views the other important individuals in their life. For instance, if the individual sees their mother as nagging and demanding they will appear that way in the individual’s dreams.Conceptions of the world or how one views their environment. For example, if the individual finds the world cold and unfeeling, their dream may take place in a bleak, snowy tundra.Conceptions of impulses, prohibitions, and penalties or how the dreamer understands his repressed wishes. Hall suggested it’s our understanding of our desires, not the desires themselves, that impact our behavior. Thus, for example, dreams about hitting a wall or other obstacle in the pursuit of pleasure could shed light on the way an individual feels about their sexual impulses. Conceptions of problems and conflict or one’s conceptions of the challenges one faces in life. For instance if the individual sees their mother as nagging, their dream may reflect their dilemma in coping with what they perceive as their mother’s unreasonable demands. Hall came to his conclusions about dreams through an approach he developed with Robert Van De Castle in the 1960s. The approach uses quantitative content analysis to evaluate reports of dreams. The system of content analysis scales provides a scientific way to evaluate dreams. This stands in contrast to Freud and Jung’s approaches to dream interpretation, which lack scientific rigor. Other Psychological Approaches to Dream Interpretation There are several other approaches to dream interpretation that arise from different psychological perspectives. Some of these approaches are already reflected in the researchers mentioned above. Freud’s approach to dream interpretation is utilized by psychodynamic psychologists, while Hall’s approach is shared by cognitive psychologists. Other approaches include: Behavioral psychologists focus on how an individual’s behavior impacts their dreams and the behavior they exhibit within their dreams.Humanistic psychologists see dreams as reflections of the self and how the individual deals with their circumstances. Sources Cherry, Kendra. â€Å"Dream Interpretation: What Do Dreams Mean.† Verywell Mind, 26 July 2019. https://www.verywellmind.com/dream-interpretation-what-do-dreams-mean-2795930Domhoff, G. William. Dreams Have Psychological Meaning and Cultural Uses, but No Known Adaptive Function. The DreamResearch.net Dream Library. https://dreams.ucsc.edu/Library/purpose.htmlHall, Calvin S. A Cognitive Theory of Dreams. The Journal of General Psychology, vol. 49, no. 2, 1953, pp. 273-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1953.9710091Hurd, Ryan. Calvin Hall and the Cognitive Theory of Dreaming. Dream Studies Portal. https://dreamstudies.org/2009/12/03/calvin-hall-cognitive-theory-of-dreaming/Jung, Carl. The Essential Jung: Selected Writings. Princeton University Press, 1983.Kluger, Jeffrey. What Your Dreams Actually Mean, According to Science. Time, 12 September, 2017. https://time.com/4921605/dreams-meaning/McAdams, Dan.  The Person: An Introduction to the Science of Personality Psychology. 5t h ed., Wiley, 2008. McAndrews, Frank T. The Freudian Symbolism in Your Dreams. Psychology Today, 1 January, 2018. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/out-the-ooze/201801/the-freudian-symbolism-in-your-dreamsMcLeod, Saul. â€Å"What Are the Most Interesting Ideas of Sigmund Freud.† Simply Psychology, 5 April, 2019. https://www.simplypsychology.org/Sigmund-Freud.htmlNichols, Hannah. Dreams: Why Do We Dream? Medical News Today, 28 June, 2018. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/284378.phpSmykowski, Joanna. The Psychology of Dreams: What Do They Mean? BetterHelp, 28 June, 2019. https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/psychologists/the-psychology-of-dreams-what-do-they-mean/Stevens, Anthony. Jung: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 1994.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Barclays CoCo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Barclays CoCo - Essay Example instrument, debt is reduced, and it qualifies as a Tier 1 capital increasing the book value of the bank’s equity capital before the occurrence of the trigger event. When a CoCo triggers, there are two things involved; the losses involved are absorbed by the CoCo either by suffering a principal write-down or by transforming into common equity. In the case of principal write-down, the bonds are written down to equity that matches the extent of liabilities released thus generating exceptional gains that are allocated to the bank’s retained earnings (Stefan, Anastasia & Bilyana, 2013). In cases where the CoCo is convertible, when a trigger is met, the bond automatically converts to common stock as a prearranged percentage. As the CoCo bond market unceasingly grows, investors are exposed to various risks and rewards. One of the appalling risks faced by investors in CoCos is the systematic risk. The CoCos market is vulnerable. A conversion or coupon deferral may soon occur causing a fall in price upto 9% and a significant drop in conversion circa -15%. This could put CoCo holders in a worst/unfortunate position than shareholders (Stefan, Anastasia & Bilyana, 2013). Moreover, there exists information asymmetry in the CoCos market where investors have little knowledge regarding the operation of the CoCos while the issuers are fully aware of their credit fundamentals. For instance, the PONV (point of non-viability) as a language has been hard for many investors to comprehend thus upsurging the risks of them losing their cash by investing in unfeasible CoCos. According to Stefan, Anastasia and Bilyana (2013), this coupled with the complexity of CoCos, and the flawed CoCo rating methodologies presents a majo r risk to investors and might lead to unfathomable losses. Nevertheless, CoCos are rewarding as they provide a high yield of 4.5%-10% that is better than the average yield of circa 4.2% for high yield sectors in the U.K (Chorafas,  2015). These high returns continue